Joost  Geurts

European Affairs Manager
2013
  • Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over CCN: A Caching and Overhead Analysis Yaning Liu, Joost Geurts, Jean-Charles Point, Stefan Lederer, Benjamin Rainer, Christopher Muller, Christian Timmerer and Hermann Hellwagner, IEEE ICC2013, Budapest, Hungary, 9-13 June, 2013. (accepted for publication)
    In this paper, we present our implementation and evaluation of Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over Content centric networking (DASC) which implements MPEG Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (DASH) utilizing a Content Centric Networking (CCN) naming scheme to identify content segments in a CCN network. In particular, video segments formatted according to MPEG-DASH are available in different quality levels but instead of HTTP, CCN is used for referencing and delivery. Based on the conditions of the network, the DASC client issues interests for segments achieving the best throughput. Due to segment caching within the network, subsequent requests for the same content can be served quicker. As a result, the quality of the video a user receives progressively improves, effectively overcoming bottlenecks in the network. We present two sets of experiments to evaluate the performance of DASC showing that throughput indeed improves. However, the generated overhead is relatively large and the adaptation strategy used for DASH that assumes an end-to-end connection could be revised for the hop-by-hop architecture of CCN.
2012
  • DASH over CCN: A CCN Use-Case for a SocialMedia Based Collaborative ProjectYaning Liu, Joost Geurts, Benjamin Rainer, Stefan Lederer, Christopher Muller, Christian Timmerer, CCNxCon2012, Sophia-Antipolis, France, Sept. 2012.
  • SocialSensor: Surfacing Real-time trends & Insights from Multiple Social Networks S. Diplaris, G. Petkos, S. Papadopoulos, I. Kompatsiaris, N. Sarris, C. Martin, A. Goker, D. Corney, J. Geurts, Y. Liu, and JC. Point, NEM12, Istanbul, Oct. 2012.
2011
2010
  • Cross-disciplinary Challenges and Recommendations regarding the Future of Multimedia Search Engines Nozha Boujemaa (ed), Henri Gouraud, Ramón Compañó, Jussi Karlgren, Pieter van der Linden, Paul King, Nicu Sebe, Joachim Köhler, Alexis Joly, Joost Geurts, Christoph Dosch, Robert Ortgies, Åsa Rudström, Markus Kauber, Jean-Charles Point, Jean-Yves Le Moine report Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2010 ISBN:978-92-79-15290-0, doi: 10.2759/27924. (pdf)
    CHORUS is an FP6 coordination action on audiovisual search engines that started in November 2006. It has set up an information exchange platform for the EU projects, national initiatives and key players in the domain of multimedia search engines (MSE). CHORUS activities aim to bridge the gap between researchers view (academia and industry) and the new services for end-user (technology consumers: professional and large public content owners) within a market prospective in the MSE area. Through its different structures and events: working groups, Think-Tank, A-V Search cluster and workshops, CHORUS has identified and derived critical issues within technological, socio-economic and legal aspects. The CHORUS coordination action spotlights the convergence of a number of broad categories of information access-based activities to spotlight trends and challenges for future development projects.
  • A Document Engineering Model and Processing Framework for Multimedia Documents Joost Geurts PhD thesis Technical University of Eindhoven, ISBN: 978-90-386-2160-7, February 2010. (pdf)
    Electronic documents are different from their traditional counterparts in the sense that they do not have an inherent physical representation. Document engineering uses this notion to automatically adapt the presentation of a document to the context in which it is presented. The document engineering paradigm is particularly well suited for textual documents. Nevertheless, the advantages of document engineering are also desirable for documents which are not based on text-flow, such as time based multimedia documents. Existing document engineering technology, however, makes implicit assumptions about documents based on text-flow that do not hold for multimedia documents. As a result, current document engineering tools do not work as well for multimedia documents. In our research we make the underlying assumptions of text-flow based document engineering explicit and study the way these assumptions conflict with multimedia documents. We use this to define requirements for a document engineering model and framework that apply to multimedia documents. The resulting model defines a source document as an explicit representation of the message intended by the author. The transformation rules exploit knowledge about domain, design and discourse in order to convey the intended message effectively and ensure that the result meets the constraints imposed by the delivery context. We have implemented this model in a software framework called ``Cuypers'', which integrates elements from web, document processing and knowledge intensive architectures.
2005
  • Requirements for practical multimedia annotation Joost Geurts, Jacco van Ossenbruggen, and Lynda Hardman In: Workshop on Multimedia and the Semantic Web (pages 4-11), May 2005. Heraklion, Crete, Note: part of 2nd European Semantic Web Conference (pdf)
    Applications that use annotated multimedia assets need to be able to process all the annotations about a specific media asset. At first sight, this seems almost trivial, but annotations are needed for different levels of description, these need to be related to each other in the appropriate way and, in particular on the Semantic Web, annotations may not all be stored in the same place. We distinguish between technical descriptions of a media asset from content-level descriptions. At both levels, the annotations needed in a single application may come from different vocabularies. In addition, the instantiated values for a term used from an ontology also need to be specified. We present a number of existing vocabularies related to multimedia, discuss the above problems then discuss requirements for and the desirability of a lightweight multimedia ontology.
2004
  • Discourse knowledge in device independent document formatting Joost Geurts, Jacco van Ossenbruggen, and Lynda Hardman. In: Proceedings of W3C Workshop on Metadata for Content Adaptation, October, 12-13, 2004, Dublin, Ireland. (pdf)
    Most document structures define layout structures which implicitly define semantic relationships between content elements. While document structures for text are well established (books, reports, papers etc.), models for time based documents such as multimedia and hypermedia are relatively new and lack established document structures. Traditional document description languages convey domain-dependent semantic relationships implicitly, using domain-independent mark-up for expressing layout. This works well for textual documents a,s for example, CSS and HTML demonstrate. True device independence, however, sometimes requires a change of document model to maintain the content semantics. To achieve this we need explicit information about the discourse role of the content element. We propose a model in which content is marked-up with the discourse role it plays in the document. This way the formatter has knowledge about the function of a content element so it can make appropriate lay out choices.
  • Video on the Semantic Web - Experiences with Media Streams Joost Geurts, Jacco van Ossenbruggen, Lynda Hardman, and Marc Davis. (CWI technical report INS-E0404), 2004 (pdf)
    In this paper, we report our experiences with the use of Semantic Web technology for annotating digital video material. Web technology is used to transform a large, existing video ontology embedded in an annotation tool into a commonly accessible format. The recombination of existing video material is then used as an example application, in which the video metadata enables the retrieval of video footage based on both content descriptions and cinematographic concepts, such as establishing and reaction shots. The paper focuses on the practical issues of porting ontological information to the Semantic Web, the multimedia-specific issues of video annotation, and requirements for Semantic Web query and access patterns. It thereby explicitly aims at providing input to the two new W3C Semantic Web Working Groups (Best Practices and Deployment; Data Access).
2003
  • Towards Ontology-driven Discourse: From Semantic Graphs to Multimedia Presentations Joost Geurts, Stefano Bocconi, Jacco van Ossenbruggen, and Lynda HardmanIn: Second International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC2003) (Edited by Dieter Fensel, Katia Sycara, and John Mylopoulos) (pages 597-612), Springer-Verlag, Sanibel Island, Florida, USA, October 20-23, 2003 (pdf)
    Traditionally, research in applying Semantic Web technology to multimedia information systems has focused on using annotations and ontologies to improve the retrieval process. This paper concentrates on improving the presentation of the retrieval results. First, our approach uses ontological domain knowledge to select and organize the content relevant to the topic the user is interested in. Domain ontologies are valuable in the presentation generation process, because effective presentations are those that succeed in conveying the relevant domain semantics to the user. Explicit discourse and narrative knowledge allows selection of appropriate presentation genres and creation of narrative structures, which are used for conveying these domain relations. In addition, knowledge of graphic design and media characteristics is essential to transform abstract presentation structures into real multimedia presentations. Design knowledge determines how the semantics and presentation structure are expressed in the multimedia presentation. In traditional Web environments, this type of design knowledge remains implicit, hidden in style sheets and other document transformation code. Our second use of Semantic Web technology is to model design knowledge explicitly, and to enable it to drive the transformations needed to turn annotated media items into structured presentations
  • Towards a multimedia formatting vocabulary Jacco van Ossenbruggen, Lynda Hardman, Joost Geurts, and Lloyd Rutledge (CWI technical report INS-E0301), June 2003 (pdf)
    Time-based, media-centric Web presentations can be described declaratively in the XML world through the development of languages such as SMIL. It is difficult, however, to fully integrate them in a complete document transformation processing chain. In order to achieve the desired processing of data-driven, time-based, media-centric presentations, the text-flow based formatting vocabularies used by style languages such as XSL, CSS and DSSSL need to be extended. The paper presents a selection of use cases which are used to derive a list of requirements for a multimedia style and transformation formatting vocabulary. The boundaries of applicability of existing text-based formatting models for media-centric transformations are analyzed. The paper then discusses the advantages and disadvantages of a fully-fledged time-based multimedia formatting model. Finally, the discussion is illustrated by describing the key properties of the example multimedia formatting vocabulary currently implemented in the back-end of our Cuypers multimedia transformation engine.
  • Towards a Formatting Vocabulary for Time-based Hypermedia Jacco van Ossenbruggen, Joost Geurts, Lynda Hardman, and Lloyd Rutledge In: The Twelfth International World Wide Web Conference (WWW2003) (pages 384-393), May 20-24, 2003, Budapest, Hungary. (html)
    Time-based, media-centric Web presentations can be described declaratively in the XML world through the development of languages such as SMIL. It is difficult, however, to fully integrate them in a complete document transformation processing chain. In order to achieve the desired processing of data-driven, time-based, media-centric presentations, the text-flow based formatting vocabularies used by style languages such as XSL, CSS and DSSSL need to be extended. The paper presents a selection of use cases which are used to derive a list of requirements for a multimedia style and transformation formatting vocabulary. The boundaries of applicability of existing text-based formatting models for media-centric transformations are analyzed. The paper then discusses the advantages and disadvantages of a fully-fledged time-based multimedia formatting model. Finally, the discussion is illustrated by describing the key properties of the example multimedia formatting vocabulary currently implemented in the back-end of our Cuypers multimedia transformation engine.
  • Towards Ontology-driven Discourse: From Semantic Graphs to Multimedia Presentations Joost Geurts, Stefano Bocconi, Jacco van Ossenbruggen, and Lynda Hardman (CWI technical report INS-R0305), May 2003 (pdf)
    Traditionally, research in applying Semantic Web technology to multimedia information systems has focused on using annotations and ontologies to improve the retrieval process. This paper concentrates on improving the presentation of the retrieval results. First, our approach uses ontological domain knowledge to select and organize the content relevant to the topic the user is interested in. Domain ontologies are valuable in the presentation generation process, because effective presentations are those that succeed in conveying the relevant domain semantics to the user. Explicit discourse and narrative knowledge allows selection of appropriate presentation genres and creation of narrative structures, which are used for conveying these domain relations. In addition, knowledge of graphic design and media characteristics is essential to transform abstract presentation structures in real multimedia presentations. Design knowledge determines how the semantics and presentation structure are expressed in the multimedia presentation. In traditional Web environments, this type of design knowledge remains implicit, hidden in style sheets and other document transformation code. Our second use of Semantic Web technology is to model design knowledge explicitly, and to let it drive the transformations needed to turn annotated media items into structured presentations. In this article we argue that for the automatic generation of adaptive multimedia presentations we are in need of expandable, adaptable style descriptions which provide both high-level conceptual and low-level feature extraction information. Only the combination of both facilitates the retrieval of adequate material and its user-centred presentation. We discuss the requirements for an adaptable Web-based environment for museums presenting visual artefacts. We then present the framework of our prototype multimedia generation environment which transforms a high-level user query into a concrete multimedia final-form encoding that is playable on an end-users' platform. We describe the underlying architecture and provide a working example.
2002
  • Dynamic Generation of Intelligent Multimedia Presentations through Semantic Inferencing Suzanne Little, Joost Geurts, and Jane Hunter In: 6th European Conference on Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries (pages 158-189), Springer, Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, Italy, September 2002. (pdf)
    This paper first proposes a high-level architecture for semi-automatically generating multimedia presentations by combining semantic inferencing with multimedia presentation generation tools. It then describes a system, based on this architecture, which was developed as a service to run over OAI archives - but is applicable to any repositories containing mixed-media resources described using Dublin Core. By applying an iterative sequence of searches across the Dublin Core metadata, published by the OAI data providers, semantic relationships can be inferred between the mixed-media objects which are retrieved. Using predefined mapping rules, these semantic relationships are then mapped to spatial and temporal relationships between the objects. The spatial and temporal relationships are expressed within SMIL files which can be replayed as multimedia presentations. Our underlying hypothesis is that by using automated computer processing of metadata to organize and combine semantically-related objects within multimedia presentations, the system may be able to generate new knowledge by exposing previously unrecognized connections. In addition, the use of multilayered information-rich multimedia to present the results, enables faster and easier information browsing, analysis, interpretation and deduction by the end-user.
  • Constraints for Multimedia Presentation Generation Joost Geurts Master's Thesis, University of Amsterdam, 2002. (pdf)
    Automatic multimedia presentation generation is applicable in a wide variety of circumstances because of its ability to adapt to different presentation contexts such as hardware platforms, user expertise and user interest. The process of generating a multimedia presentation takes a semantic description of the content and transforms this through a number of steps into a multimedia presentation tailored to the requirements of the individual user. This is a complex process which requires a system able to make trade-offs between the different presentation dimensions. This report shows that the use of constraints and constraint logic programming can be beneficial to the process of automatic presentation generation because of its ability to integrate different conceptual layers into one single execution environment. This approach enables an efficient revision of earlier made choices at any stage in the process. We introduce two types of constraints --- quantitative and qualitative --- and discuss what type of constraint can be beneficial at what stage.
2001
  • Application-Specific Constraints for Multimedia Presentation Generation Joost Geurts, Jacco van Ossenbruggen, and Lynda Hardman In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Multimedia Modeling 2001 (MMM01) (pages 247-266), November 5-7, 2001, CWI, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. (pdf)
    The paper describes the advantages of the use of constraint logic programming to articulate transformation rules for multimedia presentation in combination with efficient constraint solving techniques. It demonstrates the need for two different types of constraints. Quantitative constraints are needed to verify whether the final form presentation meets all the numeric constraints that are required by the environment. Qualitative constraints are needed to facilitate high-level reasoning and presentation encoding. While the quantitative constraints can be handled by off-the-shelf constraint solvers, the qualitative constraints needed are specific to the multimedia domain and need to be defined explicitly.
  • Application-Specific Constraints for Multimedia Presentation Geneneration Joost Geurts, Jacco van Ossenbruggen, and Lynda Hardman (CWI technical report INS-R0107), May 31, 2001 (pdf)
    A multimedia presentation can be viewed as a collection of multimedia items (such as image, text, video and audio), along with detailed information that describes the spatial and temporal placement of the items as part of the presentation. Manual multimedia authoring involves explicitly stating the placement of each media item in the spatial and temporal dimensions. The drawback of this approach is that resulting presentations are hard to adapt to different target platforms, network resources, and user preferences. An approach to solving this problem is to abstract from the low-level presentation details, for example by specifying the high-level semantic relations between the media items. The presentation itself can then be generated from the semantic relations along with a generic set of transformation rules, specifying how each semantic relation can be conveyed using multimedia constructs. These constructs may differ depending on the target platform, current network conditions or user preferences. We are thus able to automatically adapt the presentation to a wide variety of different circumstances while ensuring that the underlying message of the presentation remains the same. This approach requires an execution environment in which transformation rules, resulting in a set of constraints, are derived from a given semantic description. The resulting set of constraints can then be solved to create a final multimedia presentation. The paper describes the design and implementation of such a system. It explains the advantages of using constraint logic programming to realize the implementation of both the transformation rules and the constraints system. It also demonstrates the need for two different types of constraints. Quantitative constraints are needed to verify whether the final form presentation meets all the numeric constraints that are required by the environment. Qualitative constraints are needed to facilitate high-level reasoning and presentation encoding. While the quantitative constraints can be handled by off-the-shelf constraint solvers, the qualitative constraints needed are specific to the multimedia domain and need to be defined explicitly.
  • Towards Second and Third Generation Web-Based Multimedia Jacco van Ossenbruggen, Joost Geurts, Frank Cornelissen, Lloyd Rutledge, and Lynda Hardman In: The Tenth International World Wide Web Conference (pages 479-488), ACM Press, Hong Kong, May 1-5, 2001. (html)
    First generation Web-content encodes information in handwritten (HTML) Web pages. Second generation Web content generates HTML pages on demand, e.g. by filling in templates with content retrieved dynamically from a database or transformation of structured documents using style sheets (e.g. XSLT). Third generation Web pages will make use of rich markup (e.g. XML) along with metadata (e.g. RDF) schemes to make the content not only machine readable but also machine processable --- a necessary pre-requisite to the Semantic Web. While text-based content on the Web is already rapidly approaching the third generation, multimedia content is still trying to catch up with second generation techniques. Multimedia document processing has a number of fundamentally different requirements from text which make it more difficult to incorporate within the document processing chain. In particular, multimedia transformation uses different document and presentation abstractions, its formatting rules cannot be based on text-flow, it requires feedback from the formatting back-end and is hard to describe in the functional style of current style languages. We state the requirements for second generation processing of multimedia and describe how these have been incorporated in our prototype multimedia document transformation environment, Cuypers. The system overcomes a number of the restrictions of the text-flow based tool sets by integrating a number of conceptually distinct processing steps in a single runtime execution environment. We describe the need for these different processing steps and describe them in turn (semantic structure, communicative device, qualitative constraints, quantitative constraints, final form presentation), and illustrate our approach by means of an example. We conclude by discussing the models and techniques required for the creation of third generation multimedia content.
2000
  • Cuypers: a semi-automatic hypermedia generation system Jacco van Ossenbruggen, Frank Cornelissen, Joost Geurts, Lloyd Rutledge, and Lynda Hardman (CWI technical report INS-R0025), December 2000 (ps)
    The report describes the architecture of Cuypers, a system supporting second and third generation Web-based multimedia. First generation Web-content encodes information in handwritten (HTML) Web pages. Second generation Web content generates HTML pages on demand, e.g. by filling in templates with content retrieved dynamically from a database or transformation of structured documents using style sheets (e.g. XSLT). Third generation Web pages will make use of rich markup (e.g. XML) along with metadata (e.g. RDF) schemes to make the content not only machine readable but also machine processable --- a necessary pre-requisite to the Semantic Web. While text-based content on the Web is already rapidly approaching the third generation, multimedia content is still trying to catch up with second generation techniques. Multimedia document processing has a number of fundamentally different requirements from text which make it more difficult to incorporate within the document processing chain. In particular, multimedia transformation uses different document and presentation abstractions, its formatting rules cannot be based on text-flow, it requires feedback from the formatting back-end and is hard to describe in the functional style of current style languages. We state the requirements for second generation processing of multimedia and describe how these have been incorporated in our prototype multimedia document transformation environment, Cuypers. The system overcomes a number of the restrictions of the text-flow based tool sets by integrating a number of conceptually distinct processing steps in a single runtime execution environment. We describe the need for these different processing steps and describe them in turn (semantic structure, communicative device, qualitative constraints, quantitative constraints, final form presentation), and illustrate our approach by means of an example. We conclude by discussing the models and techniques required for the creation of third generation multimedia content.
  • Generating Presentation Constraints from Rhetorical Structure Lloyd Rutledge, Brian Bailey, Jacco van Ossenbruggen, Lynda Hardman, and Joost Geurts. In Proceedings of the 11th ACM conference on Hypertext and Hypermedia (pages 19-28), 2000 (pdf)
    Hypermedia structured in terms of the higher-level intent of its author can be adapted to a wider variety of final presentations. Many multimedia systems encode such high-level intent as constraints on either time, spatial layout or navigation. Once specified, these constraints are translated into specific presentations whose timelines, screen displays and navigational structure satisfy these constraints. This ensures that the desired spatial, temporal and navigation properties are maintained no matter how the presentation is adapted to varying circumstances. Rhetorical structure defines author intent at a still higher level. Authoring at this level requires that rhetorics can be translated to final presentations that properly reflect them. This paper explores how rhetorical structure can be translated into constraints, which are then translated into final presentations. This enables authoring in terms of rhetorics and provides the assurance that the rhetorics will remain properly conveyed in all presentation adaptation.